Cold storage is a commercial facility that stores goods for a long period of time at a controlled temperature. Cold storage is a storage that can be a room or an appliance that is used for storing products in order to preserve their longevity. It is referred to as storage that involves different refrigeration methods to adjust the room temperature. Cold storage is a revolutionized technique that changes the old methods of preserving food, nowadays cold storage is used in almost all industries like food, agriculture, medicine, antiques, and many more.
The only difference between cold storage and dry storage is that cold storage is cold and required heavy maintenance and is very costly. These cold storage warehouses usually look like any other warehouse from the outside but differ in their inner environment. Cold storage is also used to keep valuable resources safe for a long time.
Cold storage is an integral part of the food industry, in today’s scenario, one can’t imagine the food industry without cold storage so one can understand the importance of cold storage warehouses. The food industry is one of the biggest industries in the world. Even a small business owner dealing with food items needs cold storage.
In general, the products which we consume in our day-to-day life are either produced or cultivated at a far distance from our residence. So most of the products which we consume are perishable and decay in a very short time, so without cold storage, there will be big trouble and one can’t imagine their life. There is a very long distance From the manufacturing company to the end retail shops. This makes it compulsory to preserve the quality of the manufactured products.
Cold storage is a blessing to the food industry. The vegetables or crops which produces excessively are stored in cold storage so we can consume them during the non-season time or throughout the year.
Most of the food items come under the perishable category which tends to get spoiled or decayed if not kept at a certain temperature. cold storage keeps the food fresh, prevents the substances from decaying, decreases microbial growth and movement, preserves longevity, and also preserves the taste of food.
In 2018, the global frozen food market was valued at 260.8 billion U.S. dollars. This is predicted to grow by 40% by 2026, to a forecast value of 366.3 billion dollars. The cold chain industry in India is an up-and-coming sector and is projected to grow at the rate of 9% annually.
All kinds of businesses need cold storage services for different sorts of products. Cold storage also plays a key role in Pharma Industry, storing key medicines. And also preserves organs for a certain time period.
Depending on the need, the temperature of a cold storage warehouse varies. This is because the conditions of any two products are never the same. Vegetables may require a temperature of 12 °C, whereas frozen foods are preserved better at a temperature of -20 °C.
To fulfill the demands of all kinds of products, cold storage warehouses have different sections kept at different environmental conditions.
Generally, there are 3 temperature zones in cold storage:
Frozen (0 – -30°C) – icecreams, frozen foods, medicines
Chiller (0 to +5°C) – Fruits, medicines
Refrigerated (10-20°C) – Vegetables
Based on the storage conditions, cold storage can be categorized into 2 groups. Typically the colder you need to store your goods, the more expensive it gets. This is due to increased energy costs, and maintenance costs for the plants to operate.
Short-term or temporary storage is mostly associated with retail enterprises like supermarkets, where the product sales cycle is high. The storage period might range from 1 to 15 days, depending on the product. Depending upon the product, the storage temperature varies.
2. Long-term storage
Large-scale cold storage facilities are often associated with long-term storage. The storage time a product is kept in cold storage is determined by the type of product. Temperature varies on the basis of the products.
3. Frozen storage –
Most food products may be frozen and stored for much longer periods of time, perhaps as long as a few years. temperatures ranging from –23°C to –12°C.